Pastor, Ludwig, Freiherr von. The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages: Drawn from the Secret Archives of the Vatican and Other Original Sources. London, J. Hodges, 1891-1940. 32 v. LC 24-12249.

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Begun before Mann's history, this work, nevertheless, follows his chronologically, starting with Pope Clement V (1305) and ending with Pius VI (1799). It contains longer biographies than Mann in most cases-sometimes devoting more than one volume to one pope and at others grouping a whole series in one volume (e.g., "The Avignon Popes"). Frequent and lengthy bibliographies appear throughout the work, along with an index in each volume and many useful appendixes. As America pointed out, this is the first history of the popes based on the original sources in the Vatican Archives, which were not previously open to scholars (XXV [June 18, 1921] , p. 208). The work has been very favorably reviewed in Catholic World and America, almost volume by volume as they appeared. (See Guide to Catholic Literature [A56], v. I, pp. 736 and 900.) The American Historical Review, however, criticized Pastor for his "ultramontanism, excessive caution and half apologetic tone," but also credited him with a balanced sense of criticism and abundant erudition (XXXIV [January, 1929] , p. 407).

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